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Processing Measurement Results#

This topic tells you how to process the measurement results of Basler blaze-101 cameras.

Overview#

The blaze-101 camera measures the distance the light travels for each sensor pixel.

Using these distances, the camera calculates x,y,z coordinates in a right-handed coordinate system for each sensor pixel. The coordinate system's origin is at the camera's optical center, which is located inside the camera housing. The y axis is pointing down, and the z axis is pointing away from the camera.

The camera provides 3D information either as a depth map or as a point cloud, depending on the pixel format selected. In a depth map, z coordinates are encoded as 16-bit gray values. As illustrated below, all 3D coordinate values can be calculated from the gray values. A point cloud contains the x,y,z 3D coordinates for each sensor pixel as floating point numbers. The unit is mm.

If there is no valid depth information for a sensor pixel (e.g., due to outlier removal or insufficient light, i.e., light that is not strong enough to pass the confidence threshold), the corresponding values in a depth map or a point cloud are set to the value defined by the Scan3dInvalidDataValue parameter (default setting is 0).

Processing Depth Maps#

Depth maps consist of 16-bit gray values. For each sensor pixel, the camera converts the z coordinate value to a gray value and stores it in the depth map.

In combination with the camera's calibration data provided by the Scan3dCoordinateScale, Scan3dPrincipalPointU, Scan3dPrincipalPointV, and Scan3dFocalLength parameters, complete 3D information can be retrieved from a depth map.

Info

The Scan3dCoordinateScale parameter value varies depending on the pixel format selected. When working with the camera in the blaze Viewer, the pixel format is always set to the Coord3D_ABC32f pixel format. You can't change this setting. The depth maps provided by the blaze Viewer are created based on the point clouds. The Scan3dCoordinateScale parameter value is 1 in this case. When you're working with the blaze camera outside the pylon Viewer and set the pixel format to Coord3D_C16, the Scan3dCoordinateScale parameter value is different. The Scan3dCoordinateScale parameter values for the different pixel formats are listed in the following table.

Pixel Format Scan3dCoordinateScale[C] Parameter Value
Coord3D_ABC32f 1
Coord3D_C16 0.152588
Mono16 0.152588

Refer to the GrabDepthMap C++ sample for how to configure a camera to send depth maps and how to access the depth map data.

Calculating 3D Coordinates from the 2D Depth Map#

To convert a depth map's 16-bit gray values to z coordinates in mm, use the following formula:

z [mm] = gray2mm * g

where:

g = gray value from the depth map

gray2mm = value of the Scan3dCoordinateScale parameter

For calculating the x and y coordinates, use the following formulas:

x [mm] = (u-cx) * z / f
y [mm] = (v-cy) * z / f

where:

(u,v) = column and row in the depth map

f = value of the Scan3dFocalLength parameter, i.e., the focal length of the camera's lens

(cx,cy) = values of the Scan3dPrincipalPointU and Scan3dPrincipalPointV parameters, i.e., the principal point

C++ Sample Code#

    // Enable depth maps by enabling the Range component and setting the appropriate pixel format.
    camera.ComponentSelector.SetValue(ComponentSelector_Range);
    camera.ComponentEnable.SetValue(true);
    camera.PixelFormat.SetValue(PixelFormat_Coord3D_C16);

    // Query the conversion factor required to convert gray values to distances:
    // Choose the z axis first...
    camera.Scan3dCoordinateSelector.SetValue(Scan3dCoordinateSelector_CoordinateC);
    // ... then retrieve the conversion factor.
    const auto gray2mm = camera.Scan3dCoordinateScale.GetValue();

    // Configure the gray value used for indicating missing depth data.
    // Note: Before setting the value, the Scan3dCoordinateSelector parameter must be set to the axis the
    // value is to be configured for, in this case the z axis. This means that Scan3dCoordianteSelector must be set
    // to "CoordinateC". This has already been done a few lines above.
    camera.Scan3dInvalidDataValue.SetValue((double)missingDepth);

    // Retrieve calibration data from the camera.
    const auto cx = camera.Scan3dPrincipalPointU.GetValue();
    const auto cy = camera.Scan3dPrincipalPointV.GetValue();
    const auto f = camera.Scan3dFocalLength.GetValue();

    // ....

    // Access the data.
    const auto container = ptrGrabResult->GetDataContainer();
    const auto rangeComponent = container.GetDataComponent(0);
    const auto width = rangeComponent.GetWidth();
    const auto height = rangeComponent.GetHeight();

    // Calculate coordinates for pixel (u,v).
    const uint16_t g = ((uint16_t*)rangeComponent.GetData())[u + v * width];
    const double z = g * gray2mm;
    const double x = (u - cx) * z / f;
    const double y = (v - cy) * z / f;

Dealing with Saved Depth Maps#

For depth maps acquired with the blaze Legacy SDK, the pylon SDK, or the blaze ROS driver, you have to use the following formula:

Distance Measured [mm] = Pixel_Value x Scan3dCoordinateScale[C]

For depth maps saved with the blaze Viewer, use the following formula:

Distance Measured [mm] = DepthMin_parameter + (Pixel_Value x (DepthMax_Parameter - DepthMin_parameter)) / 65535

Processing Point Clouds#

No further processing is required to extract 3D information from a point cloud since the point cloud consists of x,y,z coordinate triples within the camera's coordinate system.

Refer to the FirstSample C++ sample for how configure a camera for sending a point cloud and how to access the data.

If you need a depth map in addition to a point cloud, refer to the ConvertPointCloud2DepthMap C++ sample that illustrates how to compute grayscale and RGB depth maps from point cloud.

Shifting the Origin of the Coordinate System to the Front of the Camera Housing#

The camera's coordinate system's origin is located in the camera's optical center which is inside the camera housing. If you prefer coordinates in a coordinate system which is located at the camera's front of the housing, i.e., which is translated along the z axis, a constant, device-specific offset has to be subtracted from the z coordinates. The required offset can be retrieved from the camera by getting the value of the ZOffsetOriginToCameraFront parameter:

const double offset = camera.ZOffsetOriginToCameraFront.GetValue();

If (x,y,z) are the coordinates of a point in the cameras's coordinate system, the corresponding coordinates (x',y',z') in a coordinate system that is shifted along the z axis to the front of the camera's housing can be determined using the following formulas:

x' = x
y' = y
z' = z - offset

Calculating Distances#

Given a point's coordinates (x,y,z) in mm, the distance of that point to the camera's optical center can be calculated using the following formula:

d = sqrt( x*x + y*y + z*z )

The distance d' to the front of the camera's housing can be calculated as follows:

z' = z - offset
d' = sqrt( x*x + y*y + z'*z')

Visualizing Depth Information as RGB images#

You can calculate RGB values from z coordinates or distance values using the following scheme for a rainbow color mapping. This can be useful for improved visualization of the data.

First, a depth value from the [minDepth..maxDepth] value range is converted into a 10-bit value. This 10-bit depth value is mapped to 4 color ranges where each range has a resolution of 8 bits.

minDepth and maxDepth = values of the DepthMin and DepthMax parameters, i.e., the camera's current depth ROI

Depth Value Mapped to Color Range
0..255 Red to yellow
(255,0,0) -> (255,255,0)
256..511 Yellow to green
(255,255,0) -> (0, 255, 0)
512..767 Green to aqua
(0,255,0) -> (0,255,255)
768..1023 Aqua to blue
(0,255,255) -> (0, 0, 255)

In the following code snippet, depth is either a z value or a distance value in mm.

const int minDepth = (int)m_camera.DepthMin.GetValue();
const int maxDepth = (int)m_camera.DepthMax.GetValue();

const double scale = 65536.0 / (maxDepth - minDepth);

for each pixel {
    // Set depth either to the corresponding z value or
    // a distance value calculated from the z value.
    // Clip depth if required.
    if (depth < minDepth)
        depth = minDepth;
    else if (depth > maxDepth)
        depth = maxDepth;
    // Compute RGB values.
    const uint16_t g = (uint16_t)((depth - minDepth) * scale);
    const uint16_t val = g >> 6 & 0xff;
    const uint16_t sel = g >> 14;
    uint32_t res = val << 8 | 0xff;
    if (sel & 0x01)
    {
        res = (~res) >> 8 & 0xffff;
    }
    if (sel & 0x02)
    {
        res = res << 8;
    }
    const uint8_t r = res & 0xff;
    res = res >> 8;
    const uint8_t g = res & 0xff;
    res = res >> 8;
    const uint8_t b = res & 0xff;
}
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